By Michael Alderson (auth.)
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Additional info for An Introduction to Epidemiology, 2nd Edition
Is most suitable as the general technique. 2 is known as indirect standardisation. R. 2 three sets of data were used: (1) the number of men in the occupational group (obtained from the census), (2) the number of observed deaths in the occupation (a count of the deaths in the period 1959-63, where the occupation was coded to the particular category of interest), and (3) the annual age-specific death-rates for all men in England and Wales (obtained from the national mortality statistics) . Providing equivalent data are available, the process of standardisation can be applied to other factors affecting mortality, or to other measures of outcome, and this is perhaps best explained by presenting specific examples.
The second use of the data is where a follow-up study is being carried out on a large number of individuals thought to be at risk of a particular disease. The nominal role of those being followed up may be matched against the lists of deaths and the death notification data. 1. 9 shows the death-rate according to age for males suffering from lung cancer; the data are from the pooled mortality-rates for a recent five-year calendar period (1966-70). The graph shows that the mortalityrate is low in the young; it then appears to climb to a peak in late middle age , but falls in the elderly.
I l 1/1 s: 600 _ : L. 50 : :--, ... : L,--- Aerosol soles I I r' , t·,·, "0 0 E s: 30 Ui .... « I r-' I ro' r' .... 200 I r' 10 0 1959 500 0' "6 40 . 5 Asthma deaths of persons aged five-thirty-four compared with sales and prescriptions of asthma preparations in England and Wales for 1959-68. Sources: Inman and Adelstein (1969) and Registrar General's Statistical Reviews for England and Wales 1969-73 19 THE USE OF MORTALITY STATISTICS Therefore, a careful examination of the mortality data helped to support the basic contention obtained from clinical studies.